Better Understanding Controllers Through Basic Patterns

Paul M. Jones has started an interesting discussion rethinking the MVC pattern as applied to the web, which he has dubbed Action-Domain-Responder (ADR). If you haven't given it a read yet, click the link and do that; this page will still be sitting here waiting when you return.

I agree with a ton of it — heck, I've contributed to it a fair bit via conversations with Paul. But there's been one thing nagging at me for a bit now, and I was finally able to put it into words recently.

Controllers — Actions in ADR — can be explained as facades.


The design pattern Facade originates in the book "Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object Oriented Software," written by Erich Gamma, Ralph Johnson, Richard Helm, and John Vlissides. Over the years, that book has come to be referred to as the "Gang of Four", referring to the four authors, and often abbreviated as "GoF".

The Facade pattern itself is one of the seven structural design patterns defined in the GoF. Structural design patterns are those that provide a mechanism for defining the relationships between classes or objects in a system. Specifically:

Facade defines a simplifed interface to a complex system.

Wikipedia has a general entry on the pattern as well, and provides some other general characteristics of a Facade:

  • A Facade creates a convenience method around a set of operations, thus reducing the complexity of operations.
  • A Facade reduces the immediate dependencies of the calling code (they call the Facade, not the underlying code).

Facade Example

As an example, let's consider the following workflow:

  • Marshal some objects
  • Munge some incoming data
  • Call a validator
  • If the data does not validate, raise an error
  • Start a transaction
  • Pass data to several different tables
  • Commit the transaction
  • Log the changes
  • Email notifications

Now, we could just write the code:

$db     = new Db($connectionConfig);
$log    = new Logger($loggerConfig);
$mailer = new Mailer($mailerConfig);
$data   = array_merge_recursive($_POST, $_FILES);

$inputFilter = new InputFilter();
if (! $inputFilter->isValid()) {
    throw new DomainException();

$db->insertInto(/* ... */);
$db->insertInto(/* ... */);
$db->insertInto(/* ... */);

$log->info('Finished a transaction');
$mailer->send('New transaction')

Straight-forward. But imagine if you needed to do this more than once. Or if you wanted to re-use this logic in multiple places in your application. This is a situation just waiting to go out-of-sync — and one where developers will come to rely on cut-and-paste for doing it correctly.

A facade would wrap this logic:

class DataTransaction
    protected $db;
    protected $logger;
    protected $mailer;

    public function __construct(Db $db, Logger $logger, Mailer $mailer)
        $this->db     = $db;
        $this->logger = $logger;
        $this->mailer = $mailer;

    public function execute($data)
        $inputFilter = new InputFilter();
        if (! $inputFilter->isValid()) {
            throw new DomainException();

        $this->db->insertInto(/* ... */);
        $this->db->insertInto(/* ... */);
        $this->db->insertInto(/* ... */);

        $this->logger->info('Finished a transaction');
        $this->mailer->send('New transaction')

You would then instantiate the facade — likely using an Inversion of Control container to inject the dependencies — and then invoke it:

$dataTransaction->execute(array_merge_recursive($_POST, $_FILES));

This code fulfills the Facade pattern: we're no longer directly manipulating dependencies, and we've simplified a complex set of operations to a single, unified API.

Controllers and Actions

Hopefully you can see where I'm going with this.

Controllers in MVC, and Actions in ADR, are best characterized as Facades.

You can define Controllers or Actions as Facades for the following operations:

  • Marshaling arguments from the request.
  • Invoking any domain/model logic, using arguments marshaled from the request.
  • Marshaling and returning a response/responder.

I think characterizing Controllers and Actions as Facades has some huge benefits. In both PHP and Rails, we've witnessed the problems that arise from so-called "Fat Controllers" — controllers that do a ton of work, making them untestable, unreadable, non-reusable nightmares. If we think of them as Facades, specifically for the three items noted above, we focus on the specific purpose they fulfill within the system, giving us:

Defining them as Facades for these three specific operations means we push logic into specific domains, achieving a proper separation of concerns. Anything that falls outside those three operations gets pushed elsewhere:

  • Models/Domains are invoked with the arguments marshaled from the request. If you find yourself calling many models, or manipulating the results returned by models, you need to create Facades in your model/domain layer.
  • If you find yourself doing lots of work in creating your response, you need to create a Facade for marshaling the response (in ADR, that would mean encapsulating more logic in your Responder).

For me, thinking of Controllers and Actions as Facades has an additional benefit: it describes rather complex architectural patterns in terms of basic design patterns. I find the more I can reduce the complexity of a definition, the more likely I will understand and use it correctly.


Consider this post a refinement of the MVC and ADR architectural patterns — a way of describing them in terms of more fundamental design patterns.

Also, this article is littered with links. Click them. Read them. Digest them. Read the books they reference. Design and architectural patterns exist because developers observed the patterns and gave them names; learn to recognize them and apply them, at all levels of your application.