On HTTP, Middleware, and PSR-7

As I've surveyed the successes and failures of ZF1 and ZF2, I've started considering how we can address usability: how do we make the framework more approachable?

One concept I've been researching a ton lately is middleware. Middleware exists in a mature form in Ruby (via Rack), Python (via WSGI), and Node (via Connect / ExpressJS); just about every language has some exemplar. Even PHP has some examples already, in StackPHP and Slim Framework.

The basic concept of middleware can be summed up in a single method signature:

function (request, response) { }

The idea is that objects, hashes, or structs representing the HTTP request and HTTP response are passed to a callable, which does something with them. You compose these in a number of ways to build an application.

In Rack and StackPHP, you use objects, and pass middleware to other middleware:

// This is pseudocode, and does not 1:1 represent any specific project:
class Action
    private $middleware;

    public function __construct(callable $middleware)
        $this->middleware = $middleware;

    public function __invoke($request, $response)
        // do something before

        call_user_func($this->middleware, $request, $response);

        // do something after

In Connect, and, by extension, ExpressJS, instead of injecting the object, you pass an additional callable, next, to the middleware function, which it can invoke if desired:

// This is pseudocode, and does not 1:1 represent any specific project:
class Action
    public function __invoke($request, $response, callable $next = null)
        // do something before

        if ($next) {

        // do something after

There are other patterns as well, but these are the two most prevalent. The basic idea is the same: receive a request and response, do something with them, and optionally tell the invoking process to do more.

What I like about the concept of middleware is that I can explain it succinctly in such a way that another developer can understand it immediately. This is one reason why middleware has thrived in these other languages: it's approachable by developers from a wide-range of experience levels.

(Interesting side-note: Symfony 2 and Zend Framework 2 actually both implement similar patterns — Symfony in its HttpKernelInterface and ZF2 in its DispatchableInterface.)

However, middleware can only exist when there are good HTTP request and response abstractions. In fact, I'd argue that middleware naturally evolves when those abstractions are present already. Languages with good middleware implementations have good HTTP abstractions.

PHP does not.

"But PHP was built for the web!" I hear many of you say. True. But more specifically, it was built with Common Gateway Interface (CGI) in mind. CGI is a way for the web server to offload the incoming request to a script; in the early days, it actually would set a whole bunch of environment variables, and your script would pull from those in order to get input and return a response. This evolved into PHP's Server APIs (SAPI) — mod_php in Apache, the php-fpm/FastCGI SAPI, etc. — and that data is present in PHP's $_SERVER superglobal. PHP also tacked on other superglobals such as $_GET, $_POST, and $_COOKIE to simplify getting the most common input data. But PHP stopped there, at version 4.1.0 (!).

What this means is that PHP developers are left with a ton of work to do to get at what should be the most common aspects of HTTP:

  • You must analyze the SCHEME, HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO, HOST, SERVER_NAME, SERVER_ADDR, REQUEST_URI, UNENCODED_URL, HTTP_X_ORIGINAL_URL, ORIG_PATH_INFO, and QUERY_STRING elements of the $_SERVER superglobal elements in order to fully and accurately determine the request URI in a cross-platform way. (Bonus points if you know why!)
  • Headers are also in $_SERVER, with prefixes of HTTP_… unless they have to do with the various Content-Type* headers.
  • Until 5.6, php://input, which stores the raw message content, is read-once, which means if multiple handlers need to inspect it, you must cache it — which poses problems if the cache is not known to all handlers.

When it comes to the response, as PHP developers, we have to learn that output buffering exists and how to work with it. Why? Because if any content is sent by the output buffer to the client before a header is sent, then PHP silently discards the header. Good developers learn how things like display_errors and error_reporting can affect output buffering, how to nest output buffers, and more — and that's even when they're aggregating content to emit at once!

My point is that PHP's HTTP "abstractions", because they focus on the CGI specification, and not HTTP messages, actually create a lot of work for PHP developers. The abstractions present in Rack, WSGI, Node, and others are often cleaner and more immediately usable (particularly Node's, in my opinion).

We need good HTTP abstractions to simplify web development for PHP developers.

Good HTTP abstractions will also create an ecosystem in which middleware can evolve.

As such, I've been working with the Framework Interoperability Group (FIG) since September to help finalize a set of standard HTTP message interfaces so that we can create an ecosystem in which PHP developers can create re-usable middleware that they can share. (The new proposal has the designation PSR-7.)

To me, this is the logical implication of Composer: the ability to package re-usable web-focussed widgets that can be composed into applications.

In other words, we'll no longer write Zend Framework or Symfony or Laravel or framework-flavor-of-the-day applications or modules/bundles/packages/what-have-you. We'll write middleware that solves a discrete problem, potentially using other third-party libraries, and then compose them into our applications — whether those are integrated into a framework or otherwise.

What this means is that we might compose middlewares that accomplish discrete functionality in order to build up our website:

$app = new MiddlewareRunner();
$app->add('/contact', new ContactFormMiddleware());
$app->add('/forum', new ForumMiddleware());
$app->add('/blog', new BlogMiddleware());
$app->add('/store', new EcommerceMiddleware());
$app->run($request, $response);

Another use case would be to use middlewares that provide runtime aspects that affect the behavior of our application as a whole. As an example, consider an API engine, where you might have middleware for each behavior you want to implement:

$app = new MiddlewareRunner();
$app->add(new Versioning());
$app->add(new Router());
$app->add(new Authentication());
$app->add(new Options());
$app->add(new Authorization());
$app->add(new Accepts());
$app->add(new ContentType());
$app->add(new Parser());
$app->add(new Params());
$app->add(new Query());
$app->add(new Body());
$app->add(new Dispatcher());
$app->add(new ProblemHandler());
$app->run($request, $response);

If I wanted to add my own authorization, I can look at the above, find the line where that happens, and change it to use my own middleware. In other words, middleware can enable usability and composition for users.

On top of that, in my experiments, well-written middleware and smart middleware runners can also lead to incredible performance. You can typically stop execution whenever you want by no longer calling next(), or by skipping the decorated middleware, or by returning a response (depending on the middleware runner architecture), and most well-written middleware will do pre-emptive checks so that it exits (or calls next()) early if it has nothing to do based on the current request. Couple this with good architectural practices like dependency injection and lazy-loading, and you can actually address each of usability, performance, and maintainability in your projects — not a bad coup!

(Caveat: as with any application architecture, you can also shoot yourself in the foot; middleware is not a silver bullet or a guarantee.)


Too often, I feel as PHP developers we focus on the tools we use, and forget that we're working in an HTTP-centric ecosystem. PHP doesn't help us, in that regard. Additionally, I think we focus too much on our frameworks, and not enough on how what we write could be useful across the entire PHP ecosystem.

If PSR-7 is ratified, I think we have a strong foot forward towards building framework-agnostic web-focused components that have real re-use capabilities — not just re-use within our chosen framework fiefdoms.

I'm working to do that, and I think we're getting close to a vote. If you're interested in PSR-7, I urge you to take a look at the proposal:

the current related pull requests and issues:

and any discussion prefixed with [PSR-7] in the php-fig mailing list:

  • https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/php-fig/subject$3Apsr-7%7Csort:date

I've also created a prototype implementation of PSR-7:

and a port of Connect to PHP using it:

Join me in developing HTTP-centric PHP!


  • Removed some inflammatory verbiage and rephrased a few areas to emphasize that the focus on CGI is the primary problem I want to address in PHP today.